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Frankfurt, Germany (2019)

Title: Dark Matter
Minimaforms (Theodore & Stephen Spyropoulos)
Dimensions:  985 x 1357 x 589 mm
Weight: 157 kg (without support-box)

Dark Matter takes its name from the speculative formational simulations of dark matter structures that are constructed to describe swarms of galaxies to dust and plasma.

It is a cosmological construct that articulates new conceptions of our understanding of the universe.


Pictured the first experiment tests done by Minimaforms to study the performance of their own developed software within our process.

Working through this inspirational thought construct, Minimaforms conceptualized a strategy to explore Sandhelden´s sand printing process and the complex structuring of time-based form through particle-based cellular growth structures.

Cells simulated to interconnect through forces and internal accumulative rules create an iterative process to construct a prototype of the most basic of human-designed objects, a chair.


Minimaforms´ chair prototype is a moment in time that utilizes particle scaling and clustering to create a prototype that can iterate for structuring density and resolution based performance.

The chair was printed in an S-Max by ExOne (1800 mm x 900 mm x 700 mm)

Minimaforms has customized a workflow that works through various scripted 4D frameworks to deal with high-resolution particle simulations and meshing files for print.

The final piece was selected finalist for the purmundus challenge 2019 at the Formnext 2019. The artwork was presented fro the first in Frankfurt during the show.


The artist

Minimaforms was founded in 2002 by brothers Stephen and Theodore Spyropoulos as an experimental architecture and design practice. Using design as a mode of enquiry, the studio explores architecture and design than can enable new forms of communication.

Embracing a generative and behavioral approach the studio develops open systems that construct participatory and interactive frameworks that engage the everyday.

Pushing the boundaries of art, architecture and design the work of Minimaforms is interdisciplinary and forward-thinking exploring digital design and fabrication along with communication technologies seeking to construct spaces of social and material interaction.

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